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Tuesday, April 21, 2015

Counselors / Psychologists

We are looking for Counselors / Psychologists for a new Tele-counseling service being set up by Dr. Sanjay Chugh and his team.
Job Requirement: 
- 2 - 3 years of experience in the field of mental health counseling. Freshers will also be considered. 
- Fluency in English and Hindi is a must. Fluency in any third language would be given preference. 
Position: Full Time
Location: New Delhi

All interested candidates may  email us directly at Only short listed candidates will be notified for a clinical interview.

St Jude India ChildCare Centre

There is an urgent vacancy at Hyderabad. 
St Jude India ChildCare Centres ( is looking for a lady staff to take care of day to day running and overall management which involves maintenance, cleanliness, reporting and managing financial aspect of the centre. Children with cancer and their parents stay in the centre when in Hyderabad for cancer treatment. This is a home away from home run to highest international standards. They are looking for a person with background in early childhood education and social work. Fluency in English, conversational Telugu and basic computer skills preferred.
Accommodation will be provided for suitable candidates
         Contact person Ms. Tyaba Bilgrami : 97697 83279

Counselors, Special Educator and Shadow Teachers

KNACK Services is hiring Counselors, Special Educator and Shadow Teachers in Mumbai.

Counselor: MA in Clinical or Counseling Psychology
Special Educators: B.Ed in special education (MR/LD)
Shadow teacher: B.Ed (any subject) or BA in Psychology

Candidates interested in working with special children may apply.
Freshers may apply; Training will be provided.

Contact No: 09167240056 Soumya Bhatt
                  09167240058 Kirti Shah

Senior Star Counsellor

Urgent opening for the post of Senior Star Counsellor. Candidate should be ready to travel locally within region of Thane, Ghatkopar and Vashi circle. Psychologists/ Physiotherapists/ Occupational therapists can apply. Please check the website for work profile-


Vacancy for Psychologists/Counsellor in ranchi, Jharkhand (No. of Vacancy: 10)

please send your updated CV to

Mobile: +919386816675, +919031828026


Training Workshop on
Dates : April 24 25,  2015
Venue:  Nodal Office, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala
We are pleased to inform you that the Christ University, Bengaluru is conducting the Training Workshop on “Basic Statistics for Researchers”   April 24 25, 2015 at the Nodal Office, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala.   
Objective and Scope of the Workshop:
The Workshop aims to enhance knowledge of Researchers/Students having no sound Statistics/Mathematics background on BASIC STATISTICS.  It will provide useful insights and inputs in Basic/Applied Statistics to Students Researchers from Non-Statistics backgrounds having very little knowledge of Applications of Statistics in research. The Workshop will also act like a refresher course for those who studied Statistics in their earlier academics but are not sure on its immense usage in the fields of Research
Topics to be covered: 
Introduction To StatisticsNeed Uses of StatisticsUse of Statistics in ResearchTreating / Reading DATAClassification of DataMeasures of Central Tendency – Mean, Median, ModeStandard Deviation, Standard Error; Variance Covariance; Concepts of Normality – Chebychev’s Theorem;Skewness KurtosisParameters of DATAComparison of Means – t-test, ANOVA, Chi-Square;Comparison of variancesCorrelation Regression;  Uses of RegressionDifferent types of Regressions;Understanding Principle Component Analysis; Understanding Factor AnalysisUnderstanding Reliability AnalysisIntroduction to some Non-Parametric tests; Tables, Graphs ChartsUsing right tools at right placeAn introduction to Computer Based Statistical Packages; Brief Introduction to MS-EXCEL Data Analysis PackageBrief Introduction to IBM SPSS package
Profile of Participants:
Researchers including Graduate, Post-Graduate, M.Phil and Ph.D. students
Resource Person:
Very experienced and top ranked data scientist, with very good feedback from participants of earlier training workshops
Workshop registration:
Those interested to participate may apply in the format prescribed below through e-mail/post before April 20, 2015.  Fees ofRs.1,300 may be paid by DD drawn in favour of the Vice Chancellor, Christ University, Bengaluru 560029)    Fees include costs of training materials, stationery, use of computer lab, lunch and refreshments on the  two training days. 
Can be arranged on request - rent ranging Rs.200-350/night; payment may be made directly. Participants may make own arrangements also.
Additional Information:
·         The workshop starts at 10.00 am on April 24, 2015
·         Certificate of Participation will be issued to those who take part in all sessions of the Workshop.
·         Certificate for availing duty leave will also be issued on request.
For more information, if any, please contact: 
Research  Director, Christ University Nodal Office, T.C.15/1359, All India Radio Road, Vazhuthacaud, Thiruvananthapuram  – 695014, Kerala, Tel: 0471-2339959/2339960; mobile 9746936082; email:

Manipal University M.Sc. in Clinical Psychology Admission Notice 2015

Applications are invited for the course of M.Sc. in Clinical Psychology at Department of Clinical Psychology, Kasturba Hospital, Manipal University, Manipal

Last date of receiving application form is on 30th May 2015

Eligibility: Candidates who have obtained a Bachelor's degree in Psychology or equivalent, with a minimum 55% marks in aggregate or equivalent grade point average. Students who have completed Bachelor's degree with Psychology as a core subject (completed minimum 60 hours or equivalent)

Admission is through written entrance test and interview

For more details contact

Director, Admissions
Manipal University, Manipal-576104

For further details please contact:

Johnson Alex, PhD M.Phil(Cli.Psy.)  
Associate Professor & Head
Department of Clinical Psychology
Manipal University
Karnataka, India.
Ph: +918202933521/2922415, 9901729443(M)

Two day CBT skill training in Cochin

Due to overwhelming response to the CBT skill in Trivandrum in February 15, I am organising a another CBT skill training in Cochin 

Dates:  30th & 31st May 15 (Saturday and Sunday) 
Venue: ABBAM Hotel, Vyttila, Cochin

Joseph Mathew 
Clinical Psychologist 
107 Orr Street, Shepparton 
VIC-3630, Australia 

Mob: 04045 78990  

Stimulus control of behaviour

Stimulus control of behaviour
Stimulus control is a term used to describe situations in which a behavior is triggered by the presence or absence of some stimulus. For example, if you always eat when you watch TV, your eating behavior is controlled by the stimulus of watching TV. (This can be an important insight to some people.) If you are talkative with your friends but you never speak out in a classroom, your speech behavior is controlled by your social environment.

Antecedents are things that come before. In operant conditioning, antecedent stimuli are those occurring before a behavior. Teachers of operant conditioning sometimes say behavior is controlled by its consequences. That sums up much of operant conditioning, but the statement is incomplete. Antecedents can also control behavior. When they do, it is called stimulus control.

n  Stimulus control of operant behavior
          Context drives appropriate behavior
n  Depending on where you are, the situation you are in , etc., certain behaviors are acceptable; these same behaviors may be inappropriate in different contexts/situations
          Behavior must adjust to the environment
n  Stimulus discrimination and generalization
          How organisms identify and distinguish different stimuli; considered one of the most important concepts in psychology
n  No situation repeats itself exactly, so a degree of generalization is necessary
n  However, also critical to distinguish various stimuli
n  Stimulus discrimination
Differential responding to two or more stimuli
n  Stimulus generalization
Similar responding to two or more stimuli

Garcia Effect

Garcia Effect
The Garcia effect is an example of classical conditioning in everyday life. The Garcia Effect (conditioned taste aversion) is an aversion or distaste for a particular taste or smell that was associated with a negative reaction (such as nausea or vomiting).

This effect was discovered by John Garcia while he was studying effects of radiation on mice. He noticed that rats would avoid a new food when it was initially presented around the time of radiation exposure, which causes nausea and a general feeling of sickness. The Garcia effect occurs in patients undergoing treatment for cancer who are exposed to radiation as treatment. It can also happen in humans when a bad reaction occurs as a result of ingesting a particular food or drink, either from food poisoning or overindulgence.

Aversive Conditioning

Aversive Conditioning

Also referred to as aversion therapy, a technique used in behavior therapy to reduce the appeal of behaviors one wants to eliminate by associating them with physical or psychological discomfort.

In aversive conditioning, the client is exposed to an unpleasant stimulus while engaging in the targeted behavior, the goal being to create an aversion to it. In adults, aversive conditioning is often used to combat addictions such as smoking or alcoholism. One common method is the administration of a nausea-producing drug while the client is smoking or drinking so that unpleasant associations are paired with the addictive behavior. In addition to smoking and alcoholism, aversive therapy has also been used to treat nail biting, sex addiction, and other strong habits or addictions. In the past, electroconvulsive therapy was sometimes administered as a form of aversion therapy for certain disorders, but this practice has been discontinued.

In children aversive conditioning plays a role in one of the most effective treatments for enuresis (bedwetting): the bell and pad method. A pad with a wetness sensor is placed in the child's bed, connected to a bell that sounds at the first sign of wetness. When the bell rings, the child must then get out of bed and go to the bathroom instead of continuing to wet the bed. This method is successful in part because it associates bedwetting with the unpleasantness of being awakened and inconvenienced in the middle of the night. A related technique that further reinforces the inconvenience of bedwetting is having the child change his own sheets and pajamas when he wakes up wet at night.

In a variation of aversive conditioning called covert sensitization, the client imagines the undesirable behavior instead of actually engaging in it, and then either imagines or is exposed to an unpleasant stimulus.


A type of Pavlovian or classical conditioning in which the unconditioned stimulus is a positive reinforcer that plays to the appetite, for example, food.

APPETITIVE CONDITIONING: "In appetitive conditioning, food for example, is provided as a reward following the presentation of a stimulus."

Appetitive conditioning utilizes a positive reinforcing stimulus—for example, access to food, water, or sex. Interestingly, animals conditioned with an appetitive stimulus, such as food, will often approach and contact the stimulus signaling its availability. If a localized visual stimulus (CS) repeatedly signals the delivery of food (US), pigeons will often peck at the CS before approaching the food cup, although pecking is not required for food access. Interestingly, the tracking of a food signal appears to be modality-specific. When trained with an auditory CS, which is presumably less localized in space, pigeons do not peck at the CS but instead advance toward the food cup directly (Brown and Jenkins 1968).

Classic Conditioning

Classic Conditioning
Classic (also called respondent conditioning results from the re­peated pairing of a neutral conditioned) stimulus with one that evokes a response (unconditioned stimulus), such that the neu­tral stimulus eventually conies to evoke the response. The lime relation between the presentation of the conditioned and uncon­ditioned stimuli is important and varies tor optimal learning from a fraction of a second to several seconds.
The Russian physiologist and Nobel Prize winner Ivan Petrovich Pavlov observed in his work on gastric secretion that a dog salivated not only when food was placed in its mouth hut also at the sound of the footsteps of the person coming to feed it. even though the dog could not see or smell the food. Pavlov analyzed these events and called (he saliva flow that occurred with the sound of footsteps a conditioned response (CR)—a response elicited under certain conditions by a particular stimulus.
In a typical pavlovian experiment, a stimulus (S) that had no capacity to evoke a particular response before training did so after consistent association with another stimulus. For example, under normal circumstances, a dog does not salivate at the sound of a bell, but when the bell sound is always followed by the presentation of food, the dog ultimately pairs the bell and the food. Eventually, the bell sound alone elicits salivation (CR).

Because the food naturally produces salivation, it is referred to as an unconditioned stimulus (UCS). Salivation, a response that is reliably elicited by food (UCS) is referred to as an unconditioned response (UCR). The bell, which was originally unable to evoke salivation but came to do so when paired with food, is referred to as a conditioned stimulus (CS). Classic conditioning is most often applied to responses mediated by the autonomic nervous system.


Conditioning, in physiology, a behavioral process whereby a response becomes more frequent or more predictable in a given environment as a result of reinforcement, with reinforcement typically being a stimulus or reward for a desired response. Early in the 20th century, through the study of reflexes, physiologists in Russia, England, and the United States developed the procedures, observations, and definitions of conditioning. After the 1920s, psychologists turned their research to the nature and prerequisites of conditioning.

Stimulus-response (S-R) theories are central to the principles of conditioning. They are based on the assumption that human behaviour is learned. One of the early contributors to the field, American psychologist Edward L. Thorndike, postulated the Law of Effect, which stated that those behavioral responses (R) that were most closely followed by a satisfactory result were most likely to become established patterns and to reoccur in response to the same stimulus (S). This basic S-R scheme is referred to as unmediated. When an individual organism (O) affects the stimuli in any way—for example, by thinking about a response—the response is considered mediated. The S-O-R theories of behaviour are often drawn to explain social interaction between individuals or groups.

Conditioning is a form of learning in which either (1) a given stimulus (or signal) becomes increasingly effective in evoking a response or (2) a response occurs with increasing regularity in a well-specified and stable environment. The type of reinforcement used will determine the outcome. When two stimuli are presented in an appropriate time and intensity relationship, one of them will eventually induce a response resembling that of the other. The process can be described as one of stimulus substitution. This procedure is called classical (or respondent) conditioning.

Biological constraints in learning

Biological constraints on learning
Biological constraints on learning refer to any limitations on an organism's capacity to learn that are caused by the inherited sensory, response, or cognitive capabilities of members of a given species. Likewise Biological constraints are limitations on learning that result from biological factors rather than from experience.

An observation that certain behaviors can be learned more easily than some other. It is part of the learning theory in psychology.

BIOLOGICAL CONSTRAINT: "Gorillas and chimps are able to learn different physical tasks and to communicate using the sign language, but due to biological constraint they are not able to learn to read or speak."

How do biological constraints affect classical and operant conditioning?
Classical conditioning principles, we now know, are constrained by biological predispositions, so that learning some associations is easier than learning others. Learning is adaptive: Each species learns behaviors that aid its survival. Biological constraints also place limits on operant conditioning. Training that attempts to override biological constraints will probably not endure because animals will revert to predisposed patterns.

Biological Constraints on Learning
The phenomena that are usually called biological constraints on learning indicated the intrusion of biological factors into standard, traditional conditioning situations. Breland and Breland (1961) were the first to recognize the importance of constraints in operant conditioning situations. They observed what they called instinctive drift, a tendency for "natural behaviors" of animals undergoing operant conditioning to intrude upon and interfere with the emission of the response being reinforced. The Brelands clearly recognized the fundamental importance of their observations, which they viewed as a "demonstration that there are definite weaknesses in the philoso­phy underlying these (conditioning] techniques" (Breland and Breland 1961, 684). However, their findings had little effect at the time. The later discoveries of taste aversion learning, autoshaping, and species-specific defense reactions had more impact.
Taste aversion learning was first reported by Garcia and Koelling (1966). In essence, taste aversion learning suggests that some stimuli are more associable than others, challenging the often implicit assumption of associationists that stimuli are generally equipotential (Seligman 1970). These studies show that many animals are more likely to associate intestinal illness with gustatory (or olfactory) stimuli than with external stimuli. Garcia and Koelling (1966) proposed that these results demon­strate that rats may have a genetically coded hypothesis: "The hypothesis of the sick rat, as for many of us under similar circumstances, would be 'it must have been something I ate'" (Garcia and Koelling 1966, 124).
The phenomenon of autoshaping was first reported by Brown and Jenkins (1968). Brown and Jenkins found that if they simply illuminated a light behind a pecking key for a few seconds, then presented food, the pigeons began to peck the key even though these pecks had no effect on the presentation of the reinforcer. Although they felt that an appeal to some species-specific disposition was necessary, and though Breland and Breland reported many similar findings in less constrained situations, Brown and Jenkins do not cite the Brelands. The implication that species-specific predispositions affect the key peck has been confirmed. Jenkins and Moore (1973) snowed that the topography of the pigeon's key peck depends on the rein-forcer used. Mauldin (1981; Kami! and Mauldin 1987) found that three different passerine species each used species-specific response topologies in an autoshaping situation.
There can be no doubt that these "biological constraints" on learning demon­strate that the evolutionary history of the species being studied can affect the out­come of a conditioning experiment. Whether the differences between taste aversion learning and other aversive conditioning are considered qualitative or quantitative, differences that seem most explicable in functional grounds do exist. The form of the response in a Skinner box depends on the natural repertoire of the animal, as do the results of avoidance learning experiments. However, the impact of these findings on the psychological study of animal learning has been limited.

In summary, then, three types of research indicate the need for a biological approach to learning: (1) studies of biological constraints, which clearly show that the evolutionary history of the species can affect the outcome of conditioning experi­ments in a variety of ways; (2) studies of specialized learning, which indicate that there can be significant variation in learning mechanisms that correlate with the ecologies of the species being studied; and (3) evidence from behavioral ecology, which shows that general forms of learning are of adaptive significance and may also, therefore, vary in ways that correlate with ecology.

Opponent-Process Theory

The Opponent-Process Theory of Motivation
(Solomon and Corbit, 1974)

The concepts of habituation and sensitization have been extended to emotions and motivated behavior.

Common characteristics of emotional reactions
1. Emotional reactions are biphasic; a primary reaction is followed by an opposite after-reaction
2. The primary reaction becomes weaker with repeated stimulations
3. The after-reaction is strengthened

The Opponent-Process Theory is a homeostatic theory
The theory assumes that neurophysiological mechanisms involved in emotional behavior serve to maintain emotional stability.

*      New stimulus events, esp. those arousing strong emotions, disrupt a person’s equilibrium.
*      This disruption triggers an opposite (opponent) response (process) that eventually restores equilibrium.
*      If the event occurs repeatedly, the opponent process becomes stronger and eventually suppresses the initial reaction to the stimulus, creating habituation.
*      e.g., development of drug tolerance and addiction
*      e.g., engagement in high risk/arousal activities such as skydiving
*      e.g., accidental drug overdoses
*      NOTE:  Opponent process explanations based on habituation and sensitization cannot explain many of the behaviors  and mental processes that are the focus of psychology.
*      Learned associations between certain environmental stimuli and certain opponent responses affect our thoughts and behaviors as well. 
*      CLASSICAL CONDITIONING is one type of associative learning that builds associations between various stimuli as well as between stimuli and responses

Richard Solomon developed a motivational theory based on opponent processes. Basically he states that every process that has an affective balance, (i.e. is pleasant or unpleasant), is followed by a secondary, "opponent process". This opponent process sets in after the primary process is quieted. With repeated exposure, the primary process becomes weaker while the opponent process is strengthened.

The most important contribution is Solomon's findings on work motivation and addictive behavior, though it does not fit the "economist's standard model", and how there are growing suspicions that addiction is a much broader phenomenon than first believed. According to opponent-process theory, drug addiction is the result of an emotional pairing of pleasure and the emotional symptoms associated with withdrawal. At the beginning of drug or any substance use, there are high levels of pleasure and low levels of withdrawal. Over time, however, as the levels of pleasure from using the drug decrease, the levels of withdrawal symptoms increase, thus providing motivation to keep using the drug despite a lack of pleasure from it.

Opponent-Process Theory:
Opponent-process theory is a psychological and neurological model that accounts for a wide range of behaviors, including color vision. This model was first proposed in 1878 by Ewald Hering, a German physiologist, and later expanded by Richard Solomon, a 20th-century psychologist.

The opponent-process theory was first developed by Ewald Hering. He noted that there are color combinations that we never see, such as reddish-green or yellowish-blue. Opponent-process theory suggests that color perception is controlled by the activity of three opponent systems. In the theory, he postulated about three independent receptor types which all have opposing pairs: white and black, blue and yellow, and red and green.

These three pairs produce combinations of colors for us through the opponent process. Furthermore, according to this theory, for each of these three pairs, three types of chemicals in the retina occur, in which two types of chemical reactions exist. These reactions would yield one member of the pair in their building up phase, or anabolic process, whereas they would yield the other member while in a destructive phase, or a catabolic process.

The colors in each pair oppose each other. Red-green receptors cannot send messages about both colors at the same time. This theory also explains negative afterimages; once a stimulus of a certain color is presented, the opponent color is perceived after the stimulus is removed because the anabolic and catabolic processes are reversed. For example, red creates a positive (or excitatory) response while green creates a negative (or inhibitory) response. These responses are controlled by opponent neurons, which are neurons that have an excitatory response to some wavelengths and an inhibitory response to wavelengths in the opponent part of the spectrum.

According to this theory, color blindness is due to the lack of a particular chemical in the eye. The positive after-image occurs after we stare at a brightly illuminated image on a regularly lighted surface and the image varies with increases and decreases in the light intensity of the background.

Habituation vs. Sensitization Habituation

Habituation vs. Sensitization Habituation
• Decrease in strength of behavior • Typically low-intensity stimuli • Stimulus-specific generalization • < neurotransmitter Sensitization
• Increase in strength of behavior • Typically highintensity stimuli • Nonspecific generalization • > neurotransmitter

Dual process theory

Dual process theory

According to the dual-process theory, which explains responses that occur as a result of two different processes, habituation and sensitization are opposite dynamics that relate to our reaction to stimuli.
Habituation, which may result in a habit or learning, is a decreased response to stimulus as opposed to its antithesis in sensitization: a heightened response to stimulus.
These two reactions are results of different processes, the S-R system and the state of arousal system, and originate in different areas of the human brain. When we habituate, we no longer respond to either the negative or the positive factors of the stimulus. We adapt in a way that we perform a function without stimulus response. Habituation is the result of changing neurons that moderate our level of response. Sensitization occurs when the state of arousal is greater in the excitation of stimulus response. Since habituation and sensitisation stimulus responses have two different results and function through two different systems (S-R and state), they are not said to be related to each other.
An example of habituation is eating in shift-workers who have a set time for their hunger stimulus that is not the same as that of regular workers. The shift-workers' schedules habituate their bodies to change the original bio-clock stimulus. Keep in mind that habituation can be either short or long term differentiating between short-term habituation and long-term habituation.

Sensitization is the excitation of sensory response towards a stimulus. In the example of animal trainers, sensitization is the best conduit to instill trust and motivation in the animal who is being behaviorally conditioned. Hence, a piece of food is often used as a reward for performing the expected response as part of the heightened sensitization process.

Learning that occurs as the result of the presentation of a single stimulus.
1.  Habituation:   Decrease in the strength of a response following repeated presentations of a single stimulus.  Stimulus initially results in a STARTLE RESPONSE (orientation, increased awareness & attention, fight or flight) which dissipates after a few trials.

Alternative Explanations
      a.  muscle fatigue:  muscles unable to respond?  change stimulus or intensity of stimulus
      b.  sensory adaptation: fatigue of sensory system?  reintroduce stimulus when not expected
 2.  Sensitization:   Increase in the strength of a response following repeated presentations of a stimulus -- "opposite" of habituation.
3.  Groves & Thompson (1970)
dominant theory of how HABITUATION & SENSITIZATION works is called the DUAL PROCESS THEORY proposed by GROVES & THOMPSON (1970) 
• DUAL PROCESS THEORY hypothesizes that there are 2 processes that underlie the increase in responsiveness seen in SENSITIZATION and the decrease in responsiveness seen in HABITUATION.
• There's the SENSITIZATION PROCESS and the HABITUATION PROCESS and these processes are not mutually exclusive -- that is, they can BOTH be activated at the same time.
a. HABITUATION NEURAL PROCESSES occur in what Groves & Thompson call the S-R SYSTEM which is analogous to the REFLEX ARC.  EVERY presentation of a stimulus activates this system.
b. SENSITIZATION NEURAL PROCESSES occur in the STATE SYSTEM which determine's the Animal's general level of responsiveness or "AROUSAL".  Only arousing events activate this system.
The S-R SYSTEM works together with the STATE SYSTEM and the net result is behavior. .  The outcome -- whether we habituate or sensitize -- will depend upon which is stronger in any given set of circumstances.
3.  Davis (1974)
Rats in an apparatus with movable floors called stabilimeter chambers, repeated pairings of loud tone (110dB) = habituation, loud tone over 60db background noise = habituation, loud tone over 80db background noise = sensitization.

Results support GROVES & THOMPSON (1970)
They would say that when the rats were tested with a relatively quiet background noise, there wasn't much to produce changes in the STATE SYSTEM so the S-R SYSTEM won out and the rats habituated.
When the rats were tested in a loud background noise, the background noise probably increased arousal (the STATE SYSTEM) and the rats increased responding, that is they sensitized.